Saturday, March 28, 2020

Utilitarianism And Euthanasia Essay Example For Students

Utilitarianism And Euthanasia Essay Today there are five to ten thousand comatose patients in long term care facilities (Wheeler A1). There are countless elderly people in care facilities that have repeatedly expressed a desire to die. There are countless terminally ill patients that have also begged for death. Should these people be allowed to die, or should they be forced to keep on living? This question has plagued ethicists and physicians throughout the years. In the Netherlands, courts have begun to permit the administration of lethal injections to terminally ill patients (Jacoby 101). To many people, this is a barbaric practice. To others, it is the only humane thing to do. When a person is dying of a terminal illness with no hope of recovery, that person should be allowed to die if they wish. Deliberately keeping them alive to endure the pain and suffering of their illness is the barbaric practice. If they wish death, death should be given to them. Activists for the Right to Life dont stop to consider the right to die. I believe that the Right to Die is as sacred a right as the Right to Life. People who believe in the Right to Die are not alone. The Hemlock Society, which advocates the right to die for terminally ill patients claims to have 28,000 members in forty chapters nationwide (Derr 3). We will write a custom essay on Utilitarianism And Euthanasia specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now One of the controversies over the right to die is: who should choose? If the patient is comatose or is unable to make rational judgements, should the doctor or a family member be permitted to make the final decision? If family members were allowed to make the decision Right to Life advocates claim, a family member could get away with the murder of a relative just because that person cant make up their own mind. Right to Death advocates have a simple answer to this problem. Every person should have a Living Will which simply states that that person wishes death if they are fatally injured or become terminally ill. A Living Will would permit people to make their own decisions about life and death with no possibility of being misunderstood. Today, Holland has legal euthanasia where an estimate for the figures for deaths from active euthanasia would be in the range of six to eighteen thousand deaths (Moody 712). This number may seem horrible to some, but to others, it simply means another six to eighteen thousand people who are no longer suffering. I do not know why the Advocates for the Right to Life insist on keeping people who are suffering alive, but I do know that they have no right to dictate to a person whether or not they have the right to die. I can understand the concern of these people that euthanasia might be used for unethical killings, such as the Nazis did in World War II, but if euthanasia were strictly regulated to include only those who had specifically asked for euthanasia, or those who had asked for it in living wills, then what happened in Germany could be prevented. When someone is suffering extreme pain from an injury or a terrible disease, do we deny them drugs to make them more comfortable? Of course not. I see no reason to deny the same suffering and dying people the comfort of death. WORKS CITED* Derr, Patrick. Euthanasia and the Future of Medicine. Hastings Center Report December 1988: 2-3* Jacoby, Tamar. I Helped Her on Her Way' Newsweek November 7, 1988: 101* Moody, Harry R. Legal and Ethical Issues in Elder Care: The Right to Die Gerontologist October 1988: 711-712* Wheeler, David L. Euthanasia: an Increasingly Pressing Issue for Ethicists and Physicians Chronicle of Higher Education November 9, 1988: A1, A6

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Data Models of Accounting Information Systems Essay Example

Data Models of Accounting Information Systems Essay Example Data Models of Accounting Information Systems Essay Data Models of Accounting Information Systems Essay In Accounting Information Systems, the object is the economic entrepreneur and the information store which is needed in a structural way so the data may be consistent and integrated. Reality modeling of the components around the economic unit is very important for building an obedient system which stores the information ABA the economic unit. In the beginning of Accounting Information Systems modeling of the data was made by materializing the processes of the economic unit into process which the computer may process fast and with fewer errors than humans. This model didnt take into consideration the Truckee of traditional data of the discipline of accounting. They stored the model intact as it was described by Bacilli during Renaissance. The Conservatism really the half accounting profession. So the the change from a stable model and hashishs appendicitis in use numeration millennium in a new model would not be easy accepted from the community unless the new model wasnt clear enough and usable. The Traditional Model uses statements to prevent errors and repetitions in computing. As the computers do the calculations very fast and without error there is no need for these statements. So the statements are just converted virtual views that contains the information processed and is viewed as man times as the user need. Beginning from the years 1975 until the beginning of 80 a number of change happened in the Celled of data modeling in general and in the modeling of data in Accounting Information Systems. AREA Model In 1979 William E. McCarthy on his thesis An entity-Relationship View of Accounting Models introduced a model which is now implemented in the most famous ASS and ERP. Etc. Importance can be given to the Clinician information system (e. G. ERP) which doesnt eve anything from traditional system. The procedure which is recommended to be taken while building an ASS model is: His suppose was based on the postulate: ASS may be naturally simulated on a relational database which contains real world entity and relations between these entities. In his thesis he emphasized the need to not be focused on the model: Transaction Table + Double Entry Principle which restraint the 3. . Identification of classified entities in Agents, Events and Resources. The building of an E-R diagram which will expose the meaning of these entities and relations between them. Definition of entities characteristics and of the relationships between them, classified by the demands of the different PDF Double Entry Principle -? which restraint the information of the entrepreneur in only one as- sided by the demands Of the different level users. 423 Data Models of Accounting Information Systems AREA vs.. IAC Sigil Hexagram, Aimed Faith Errors 4. Organization of results from the preview- process as the only way of his enhancement. Us Steps in the tables and identification AREA presents the fundamental change in the of their unique characteristics (Keys). Tat modeling of ASS, so it presents ASS itself. AREA model is the base of all other models of Information Identity]action and protection in ASS and there have been a lot of his versions, this 1 . Model is done by following these steps: Event 2. Sources which are consumed or added by this event 3. Internal Agents 4. External Agents for example: AREA-L which. Adds the entity: Locations to the AREA -model, The main rules are: 1. Every Event is connected to at least one Source from which it differ 2. Every Event is connected to at least one other Event. 3. Every Event is connected to at least two Double Entry Principle Consistency Agents (The economic duality principle). McCarthy is being thanked in a lot of books about ASS as the person who had the courage to think different from the others. Double Entry Principle seems that it makes a lot of information redundancy, but in fact this doesnt happen. This principle means that we have to register at the same time the taking or letting of a good or service with the corresponding balanced amount In money or credit of the taking or letting. There isnt redundancy; these arent different actions but complementary ones. Figure 1: Process example A schematic presentation of the above rules for a process example. Basing on the AREA cycles model of ASS, they would be presented in this way.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Impact of Media on Society Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Impact of Media on Society - Essay Example The media can affect women negatively through their desire to want to look â€Å"beautiful† like models and presenters on television. In different forms of media, women are shown as having an ideal body type (Sands, n.d.). Over a long period of time after continually seeing thin and beautiful women, it has to have an effect on the average woman in society. This can be seen from when little girls get their first Barbie doll; why is every Barbie doll sexy, slim, and are revealing? (Sands, n.d.). The reason is that the media fuels this desire by promoting it as normal. Young girls are susceptible to these types of media because they do not know how to differentiate between the truth and exaggerated truth. Going a little further, the media often plays up the sexualisation of women. This can be shown in many movies, where women are shown to be sexy and powerful. This inadvertently has an effect on women who watch these movies because they then feel like they need to act in the same way. The average model in the fashion industry is young, tall, and slim (Sands, n.d.). This can often lead to anorexia among young girls because they feel like they have to look exactly like those models that they see on fashion catwalks around the world. Another group of society that the media negatively affects is young people, namely teenagers. ... MTV is the most obvious example of this. Research shows that teenagers who watch a considerable amount of MTV have very relaxed attitudes about sex (Williams, 2004). This shows that there is a direct link between teenagers’ behaviors and what they watch on television. The last group in society that the media affects negatively is children. Violence is one of the key issues with children and the media. Research shows that children who play video games reguarly are more likely to be violent later on in life (Tompkins, 2003). Besides this, violence is often displayed on programs that children tend to watch. While this does not have the same effect on children as video games, it can still affect their behaviors when they reach adulthood. Violent behavior will often lead to prison or will affect them socially. Parents need to censor everything that their children watch on television because it may cause them to show violence towards others. The media can be used to benefit society if it is done in the right way. It is not likely that the media’s impact on society will diminish anytime soon, so it is important that the message is changed to only have a positive effect on a society’s citizens. The media can increase society’s knowledge as long as it remains unbiased and presents information that does not negatively affect three groups: women, teenagers, and children. References Sands, B. (n.d.). Mass Media Has a Negative Impact on Women. Retrieved from Teen Ink: http://www.teenink.com/opinion/pop_culture_trends/article/225891/Mass-Media-Has-a-Negative-Impact-on-Women/ Tompkins, A. (2003, December 14). The Psychological Effects of Violent Media on Children. Retrieved from AllPsych Online:

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Relevance of Portfolio Theory and Capital Asset Pricing Model Essay

Relevance of Portfolio Theory and Capital Asset Pricing Model - Essay Example In fact risk taking is directly linked to larger amount of earnings. In order to lure investors, risky investments must offer greater returns. Actually risk and returns go hand in hand. It is the belief of investors to distribute their risks and so they diversify their investments as well. They always like to make their investments in a portfolio of assets as they never like to stack all their eggs in one basket. Hence what really matters is not the risk and returns alone, but the risk and return on a portfolio of assets on the whole. According to James Bradfield (2007, p167) an assortment of securities is known as a portfolio. Portfolio theory is a conventional scrutiny of the relationship between risk and return on the risky securities. The rate of returns is particularly measured through alpha, beta, and R-squared. A random variant denotes the rate of return from a portfolio. The computation of the probability distribution generating the returns rate of the security contained in the portfolio depends on the probability distribution creating the value for the portfolio. The hypothesis is helpful for a patron. It helps them to decide and allocate their funds in risky securities thus creating a portfolio. This investment indicates the preferences with regard to the combination of risk and anticipated returns of the investors. The CAPM is a link between the risks and returns on the investments. After (Sharpe, William F.1964, pp. 425-442) developed the CAPM theory several other researchers have developed the theory with giving importance to the diversifiable and non-diversifiable risks of different investments. Previously the CAPM had only a single risk factor which was the risk of the entire movement of the market. This risk is denoted as "market risk" and the formula for CAPM is as follows: E (Ri) = Rf +i [E (RM) - Rf] Where E (RM) = expected return on a "market portfolio" i = measure of methodical risk of asset i comparative to "market portfolio". "The expected return for an asset i according to CAPM is equal risk free rate plus a risk premium" (Frank J. Fabozzi and Harry Markowitz, 2002, p.67). Later on research was conducted and the creators of CAPM theory related diversifiable which are unsystematic risks and non-diversifiable which are systematic risks for all the securities in the portfolio. Some management individuals conceived that CAPM is not genuine as it dominates participating management and investment study. Frank J. Fabozzi and Harry Markowitz states "even though the idea is not true it does not mean that the constructs introduced by the theory are not important. Constructs introduc

Monday, January 27, 2020

Research into Rational Drug Prescribing in Yemen

Research into Rational Drug Prescribing in Yemen CHAPTER 1 1.0 Introduction In Yemen as well as in many other developing countries the quality of health services which constitute social indicators of justice and equity is far from being satisfactory. Inappropriate, ineffective, and inefficient use of drugs commonly occurs at different health facilities (Abdo-Rabbo, 1993; Abdo-Rabbo, 1997). Irrational prescribing is a habit, which is difficult to cure. This may lead to ineffective treatment, health risks, patient non-compliance, drug wastage, wasteful of resources and needless expenditure. According to the Yemeni constitution, â€Å"patients have the right to health care and treatment† i.e. appropriate care, consent to treatment and acceptable safety. Therefore, health workers should concentrate on making patients better and patients should concentrate on geting better. Health care in general and particularly the drug situation in any country is influenced by the availability, affordability, and accessibility of drugs as well as the prescribing practices. There are many individuals or factors influence the irrational prescribing such as patients, prescribers, workplace environment, the supply system, including industry influences, governments regulations, drug information and misinformation (Geest S. V. et al, 1991; Hogerzeil H. V., 1995).Improving rational use of drugs (RUD) is a very complex task worldwide because changing behavior is very difficult. The 1985 Nairobi conference on the rational use of drugs marked the start of a global effort to promote rational prescribing (WHO,1987). In 1989, an overview of the subject concluded that very few interventions to promote rational drug use had been properly tested in developing countries (Laing et al., 2001). The selection of drugs to satisfy the health needs of the population is an important component of a national drug policy. The selected drugs are called essential drugs which are the most needed for the health care of the majority of the population in a given locality, and in a proper dosage forms. The national list of essential drugs (NEDL) is based on prevailing health conditions, drug efficacy, safety, and quality, cost- effectiveness and allocated financial resources. WHOs mission in essential drugs and medicines policy is to help save lives and improve health by closing the huge gap between the potential that essential drugs have to offer and the reality that for millions of people particularly the poor and disadvantaged medicines are unavailable, unaffordable, unsafe or improperly used. The organization works to fulfill its mission in essential drugs and medicines policy by providing global guidance on essential drugs and medicines, and working with countries to implement national drug policies to ensure equity of access to essential drugs, drug quality and safety, and rational use of drugs. Development and implementation of national drug policies are carried out within the overall national health policy context, with care taken to ensure that their goals are consistent with broader health objectives. All these activities ultimately contribute to all four WHO strategic directions to: reduce the excess mortality of poor and marginalized populations reduce the leading risk factors to human health develop sustainable health systems,and develop an enabling policy and institutional environment for securing health gains. The greatest impact of WHO medicines activities is, and will continue to be, on reducing excess mortality and morbidity from diseases of poverty, and on developing sustainable health systems. The people of our world do not need to bear the present burden of illness. Most of the severe illness that affects the health and well-being of the poorer people of our world could be prevented. But first, those at risk need to be able to access health care — including essential medicines, vaccines and technologies. Millions cannot — they cannot get the help they need, when they need it. As a result they suffer unnecessarily, become poorer and may die young. A countrys health service cannot respond to peoples needs unless it enables people to access essential drugs of assured quality. Indeed, this access represents a very important measure of the quality of the health service. It is one of the key indicators of equity and social justice. (Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General, World Health Organization Opening remarks, Parliamentary Commission on Investigation of Medicines, Brasilia, 4 April 2000). 1.1 Background 1.1.1 Brief history of antibiotics According to the original definition by Waksman, antibiotics substances which are produced by microorganisms and which exhibit either an inhibitory or destructive effect on other microorganisms. In a wider, though not universally accepted definition; antibiotics are substances of biological origin, which without possessing enzyme character, in low concentrations inhibit cell growth processes (Reiner, 1982). Up to now, more than 4,000 antibiotics have been isolated from microbial sources and reported in the literature, and more than 30000 semi-synthetic antibiotics have been prepared. Of these, only about 100 are used clinically as the therapeutic utility not only depends on a high antibiotic activity but also on other important properties such as good tolerance, favorable pharmacokinetics etc. These antibiotics are today among the most efficient weapons in the armoury of the physician in his fight against infectious diseases. They are therefore used a large extent and constitute the largest class of medicaments with respect to turnover value. Today, antibiotics are also used in veterinary medicine and as additives to animal feed. In the past they were used addition, as plant protection agents and as food preservatives. In this review we have confined ourselves to a brief description clinicallyuseful antibiotics. These belong to various classes of chemical compounds, differ in origin, mechanism of action and spectrum activity, and are thus important and representative examples of known antibiotics. 1.1.2 Problem Statement This study examines drug use in Yemen and factors leading to inappropriate use of medicines particularly antibiotics and the prescribing pattern. It defines rational drug use and describes policy developments, which aim to encourage appropriate use. In Yemen, as well as in many developing countries, the quality of health services is far from being achieved. Therefore, doctors should concentrate on making patients better and patients should concentrate on getting better. The rational use of drugs requires that patients received medications in appropriate to their clinical needs, in doses that meets their own requirements for an adequate period of time and at the lowest cost to them and their community (Bapna et al, 1994). This means deciding on the correct treatment for an individual patient based on good scientific reasons. It involves making an accurate diagnosis, selecting the most appropriate drug from these available, prescribing this drug in adequate doses for a sufficient length of time according to standard treatment. Furthermore, it involves monitoring the effect of the drug both on the patient and on the illness. There is plentiful evidence of the inappropriate use of drugs, not through self-medication or unauthorized prescribing, but inadequate medical prescribing and dispensing. Normally, patients in Yemen enter health facilities with a set of symmetrical complaints, and with expectations about the care they typically receive; they typically leave with a package of drugs or with a prescription to obtain them in a private market. In previous study in Yemen (misuse of antibiotics in Yemen, a pilot study in Aden) (Abdo-Rabbo, 1997) showed that imported quantity and total consumption of antibiotics is increasing. There is a lack of information about the problems created from antibiotics among the community and about the proper efficacy, safety, and rational use of antibiotics among health authority and workers. No supervision or strict rules are applied in the use of antibiotics. They are easily obtained without prescription and available in some shops. The percentage of prescriptions containing antibiotics was more than a quarter of the total prescriptions contained antibiotics, also antibiotics constituted about 25% of all prescribed drugs. 1.1.2.1 Inappropriate Drug Use Increasing use of medicines may lead to an increase in the problems associated with medication use. The use of medicines, as well as improving health, can lead to undesirable medical, social, economic and environmental consequences. Aspects of drug use, which lead to such undesirable consequences, have been called inappropriate drug use (DHHCS, 1992; WHO, 1988). Inappropriate drug use may include under-use, over-use, over-supply, non-compliance, adverse drug reactions and accidental and therapeutic poisoning (DHHCS, 1992). It also includes medicating where there is no need for drug use, the use of newer, more expensive drugs when lower cost, equally effective drugs are available (WHO, 1988) and drug use for problems which are essentially social or personal (Frauenfelder and Bungey, 1985). 1.1.2.2 Quality Use of Medicines In an attempt to encourage the appropriate use of medicinal drugs and to reduce the level of inappropriate use in Yemen, a policy was developed on the quality use of medicines. The stated aim of the policy is: to optimise medicinal drug use (both prescription and OTC) to improve healthoutcomes for all Yemenis. The policy endorses the definition of quality drug use as stated by the World Health Organisation, Drugs are often required for prevention, control and treatment of illness†. When a drug is required, the rational use of drugs demands that the appropriate drug be prescribed, that it be available at the right time at a price people can afford, that it be dispensed correctly, and that it be taken in the right dose at the right intervals and for the right length of time. The appropriate drug must be effective, and of acceptable quality and safety. The formulation and implementation by governments of a national drug policy are fundamental to ensure rational drug use (WHO, 1987 ; DHHCS, 1992). The rational use of drugs can be impeded by the inappropriate selection of management options, the inappropriate selection of a drug when a drug is required, the inappropriate dosage and duration of drug therapy and the inadequate review of drug therapy once it has been initiated. 1.1.2.3 The Requirement of Drug Information for Quality Use of Medicines A medicine has been described as an active substance plus information. (WHO, 1994). Education, together with, objective and appropriate drug information have been two of the factors consistently identified as necessary for rational drug use (Naismith, 1988; Soumerai, 1988; Carson et al, 1991; Dowden, 1991; Henry and Bochner, 1991; Tomson and Diwan, 1991). The WHO guidelines for developing national drug policies also identify the importance of information provision for facilitating drug use: Information on and promotion of drugs may greatly influence their supply and use. Monitoring and control of both activities are essential parts of any national drug policy (WHO, 1988). Objective and appropriate drug information is a necessary factor for quality drug use. It is the basis for appropriate prescribing decisions by medical practitioners. Medical practitioners require objective product, specific drug information and comparative prescribing information. Objective drug information is avai lable to medical practitioners through continuing education programs co-ordinated by professional bodies, medical and scientific journal articles, drug information services and drug formularies and guidelines. 1.1.2.4 Problem with antibiotic use The concerns regarding inappropriate antibiotic use can be divided into four areas: efficacy, toxicity, cost, and resistance. Inappropriate use of antibiotic can be due to: Antibiotic use where no infection is present, e.g. continuation of peri-operative prophylaxis for more than 24 hours after clean surgery. Infection, which is not amenable to antibiotic therapy, e.g. antibiotics prescribed for viral upper respiratory infection. The wrong drug for the causative organism, e.g. the use of broad anti-Gram negative agents for community acquired pneumonia. The wrong dose or duration of therapy. Such inappropriate use has a measurable effect on therapeutic efficacy. For example, one study showed that mortality in gram-negative septicemia is doubled when inappropriate empiric agents were used (Kreger et al., 1980). Since most initial antibiotic therapy is empiric, any attempt at improving use must tackle prescribing habits, with particular emphasis on guidelines for therapy based on clinical criteria. Inappropriate antibiotic use exposes patients to the risk of drug toxicity, while giving little or no therapeutic advantage, antibiotics are often considered relatively safe drugs and yet direct and indirect side effects of their use are frequent and may be life-threatening, allergic reactions, particularly to beta-lactam agents are well recognized and have been described in reaction to antibiotic residues in food (Barragry, 1994). Life threatening side effects may be occur from the use of antibiotics for apparently simple infections, it is estimated, for example, that eight people per year in UK die from side effects of co-trimoxazole usage in the community (Robert and Edmond, 1998). Indirect side effects are often overlooked: especially as may occur sometime after the antibiotic has been given. These include drug interactions (such as interference of antibiotic with anti-coagulant therapy and erythromycin with antihistamine) (BNF, 1998), side effects associated with the administration of antibiotics (such as intravenous cannula infection) and super-infection (such as candidiasis and pseudomembranous colitis). Each of these may have a greater morbidity, and indeed mortality, than the initial infection for which the antibiotic was prescribed (Kunin et al., 1993). The medical benefit of antibiotics does not come cheap. In the hospital setting, up to fifty percent of population receive one antibiotic during their hospital stay, with surgical prophylaxis accounting for thirty percent of this (Robert and Edmond, 1998). The first penicillin resistant isolate of Staphylococcus aureus was described only two years after the introduction of penicillin. Within a decade, 90% of isolates were penicillin resistant. This pattern of antibiotic discovery and introduction, followedby exuberant use and rapid emergence of resistance has subsequently been repeated witheach new class of antibiotics introduced. Bacteria can so rapidly develop resistance due to two major evolutionary advantages. Firstly, bacteria have been in existence for some 3.8 billion years and resistance mechanisms have evolved over this time as a protective mechanism against naturally occurring compounds produced by other microorganisms. In addition, they have an extremely rapid generation time and can freely exchange genetic material encoding resistance, not only between other species but also between genera. The vast quantities of antibiotics used in both human and veterinary medicine, as a result present in the environment, have lead to eme rgence of infection due to virtually untreatable bacteria. Multiply drug resistant tuberculosis is already widespread in parts of Southern Europe and has recently caused outbreaks in hospitals in London (Hiramatsu et al., 1997). Anti-infective are vital drugs, but they are over prescribed and overused in treatment of minor disorder such as simple diarrhea, coughs, and colds. When antibiotics are too often used in sub-optimal dosages, bacteria become resistant to them. The result is treatment failure where patient continue to suffer from serious infections despite taking the medication (Mohamed, 1999). Drugs prescribed are in no way beneficial to the patient s management if there are some negative interactions among the various agent prescribed, over prescribed, under prescribed or prescribed in the wrong dosage schedule. How does one ensure that good drug are not badly used, misused, or even abused? How can drugs be used rationally as intended? What is rational use of drugs? What does rational mean? 1.1.3 Rational Use of Drug Rational use of drugs requires that patients receive medications appropriate to their clinical needs, in doses that meet their own individual requirements for an adequate period of time, and the lowest cost to them and their community (Bapna et al., 1994). These requirements will be fulfilled if the process of prescribing is appropriately followed. This will include steps in defining patients problems (or diagnosis); in defining effective and safe treatments (drugs and non-drugs); in selecting appropriate drugs, dosage, and duration; in writing a prescription; in giving patients adequate information; and in planning to evaluate treatment responses. The definition implies that rational use of drugs; especially rational prescribing should meet certain criteria as follows (Ross et al., 1992): Appropriate indication. The decision to prescribe drug(s) is entirely based on medical rationale and that drug therapy is an effective and safe treatment. Appropriate drug.The selection of drugs is based on efficacy, safety, suitability, and considerations. Appropriate patient. No contraindications exist and the likelihood of adverse reactions is minimal, and the drug is acceptable to the patient. Appropriate information. Patients should be provided with relevant, accurate, important, and clear information regarding his or her condition and the medication(s) that are prescribed. Appropriate monitoring. The anticipated and unexpected effects of medications should be: appropriately monitored (Vance and Millington, 1986). Unfortunately, in the real world, prescribing patterns do not always conform to these criteria and can be classified as inappropriate or irrational prescribing. Irrational prescribing may be regarded as pathological prescribing, where the above- mentioned criteria are not fulfilled. Common patterns of irrational prescribing, may, therefore be manifested in the following forms: The use of drugs when no drug therapy is indicated, e.g., antibiotics for viral upper respiratory infections, The use of the wrong drug for a specific condition requiring drug therapy, e.g., tetracycline in childhood diarrhea requiring ORS, The use of drugs with doubtful/unproven efficacy, e.g., the use of antimotility agents in acute diarrhea, The use of drugs of uncertain safety status, e.g., use of dipyrone, Failure to provide available, safe, and effective drugs, e.g., failure to vaccinate against measles or tetanus, failure to prescribe ORS for acute diarrhea, The use of correct drugs with incorrect administration, dosages, and duration, e.g., the use of IV metronidazole when suppositories or oral formulations would be appropriate. The use of unnecessarily expensive drugs, e.g., the use of a third generation, broad spectrum antimicrobial when a first-line, narrow spectrum, agent is indicated. Some examples of commonly encountered inappropriate prescribing practices in many health care settings include: (Avorn et al., 1982). Overuse of antibiotics and antidiarrheals for non-specific childhood diarrhea, Multiple drug prescriptions, prescribe unnecessary drugs to counteract or augment, Drugs already prescribed, and Excessive use of antibiotics in treating minor respiratory tract infection. The drug use system is complex and varies from country to country. Drugs may be imported or manufactured locally. The drugs may be used in hospitals or health centers, by private practitioners and often in a pharmacy or drug shop where OTC preparations are sold. In some countries, all drugs are available over the counter. Another problem among the public includes a very wide range of people with differing knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about medicines. 1.1.3.1 Factors Underlying Irrational Use of Drugs There are many different factors that affect the irrational use of drugs. In addition, different cultures view drugs in different ways, and this can affect the way drugs are used. The major forces can be categorized as those deriving from patients, prescribers, the workplace, the supply system including industry influences, regulation, druginformation and misinformation, and combinations of these factors (Table 1.1) (Ross et al., 1992). Table 1.1: Factors affecting irrational use of drug Impact of Inappropriate Use of Drugs The impact of this irrational use of drugs can be seen in many ways: (Avorn et al., 1982). Reduction in the quality of drug therapy leading to increased morbidity and mortality, Waste of resources leading to reduced availability of other vital drugs and increased costs, Increased risk of unwanted effects such as adverse drug reactions and the emergence of drug resistance, e.g., malaria or multiple drugs resistant tuberculosis, Psychosocial impacts, such as when patients come to believe that there is a pill for every ill. This may cause an apparent increased demand for drugs. 1.1.3.2 The Rational Prescription (i.e. the right to prescribe) The rights to prescription writing must be ensuring the patients five rights: the right drug, the right dose, by the right route, to the right patient, at the right time. Illegible handwriting and misinterpretation of prescriptions and medication orders are widely recognized causes of prescription error. The medicines should be prescribed only when they are necessary, should be written legibly in ink or, other wise, should be led, and should be signed in ink by the prescriber, The patients full name and address, diagnosis should be written clearly, the name of drugs and formulations should be written clearly and not abbreviated, using approved titles only. Dose and dose frequency should be stated; in the cases of formulations to be taken as required, a minimum dose should be specified (British National Formulary, 1998). 1.2 Overview on Essential Drug Concept (EDC) Essential drugs relate to an international concept proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1977. WHO in that year published the first model list of essential drug and WHO has put in enormous resources into the campaign to promote the concept of essential drugs (EDL). Essential drugs were defined as a limited number of drugs that should be available at any time to the majority of population in appropriate dosage forms and at affordable prices. In other words, it meets the criteria generally abbreviated as SANE [that mean safety , availability, need efficacy] (John, 1997). The essential drug concept is important in ensuring that the vast majority of the population is accessible to drugs of high quality, safety and efficacy relevant to their health care needs, and at reasonable cost (New Straits Times, 1997a). In support of this concept, the WHOissued a model drug list that provided examples of essential drugs. The list is drawn up by a group of experts based on clinical scientific merits, and provides an economical basis of drug use. This list is regularly, revised and, since 1997, eight editions have been published. This ensures that the need for essential drugs is always kept up-to-date with additions and deletions. Despite such rigorous revision, the number of drugs in the list remains at about 300, although the initial list comprised less. Most of the drugs are no longer protected by patents and can therefore be produced in quantity at a lower cost without comprising standards (WHO, 1995). This is indeed important for countries like Yemen not only because health care are rapidly escalating, but also because the country is still very dependent on imports of strategic commodities like drugs. The EDC will enable Yemen to focus on becoming self-reliant where generic equivalents of essenti al drugs can be manufactured and popularized to meet the health needs of the majority of the people. The limited number of drugs regarded as essential on the list offers a useful guide for practitioners as well as consumers. It underscores the general principle thata majority of diseases can be treated by similar drugs regardless of national boundaries and geographical locations (New Straits Times, 2000) Moreover, certain self-limiting diseases may not need drug treatment as such. For example, in the case of diarrhea, certain so-called potent anti-diarrhoeal drugs (including antibiotics) are not generally recommended. The more preferred treatment is oral rehydration salt that could easily be obtained or prepared at a fraction of the cost while giving the most optimum outcome. The goal of the Yemen Drug Policy was to: Prepare a list of essential drugs to meet the health of needs of the people. Assure that the essential drugs made available to the public are of good quality Improve prescribing and dispensing practices Promote rational use of drug by the public Lower cost of the drugs to the government and public Reduce foreign exchange expenditure 1.3 Yemen Essential Drug List and Drug Policy in Yemen The Concept of Essential Drugs (EDC) developed by World Health Organization (WHO) in 1977 has provided a rational basis, not only for drug procurement at national level but also for establishing drug requirements at various levels within the health care system. The WHOs Action Program on Essential Drugs (DAP) aimed to improve health care. It was established in order to provide operational support in the development of National Drug Policies (NDP), to improve the availability of essential drugs to the whole population and to work towards the rational use of drugs and consequently the patient care. The program seeks to ensure that all people, whenever they may be, are able to obtain the drugs they need at the lowest possible price; that these drugs are safe and effective; and that they are prescribed and used rationally. The first WHO Model List of Essential Drugs was published in 1977 (WHO, 1977). Since that time essential drugs become an important part of health policies in developing countries; but the Essential Drugs Program has been criticized because it emphasis in improving supply of drugs rather than their rational prescribing. The recent revised WHO Model List of Essential Drugs was published the 13th edition in April 2003 (WHO, 2003). Yemen was one of the first countries in the region adapted the EDC in 1984 and implemented this concept in the public sector (Hogerzeil et al., 1989). The first Yemen (National) Essential Drugs List (YEDL) was officially issued in 1987 based on the WHO List of Essential Drugs and other resources. The second edition of the Yemen Drugs list and the Yemen Standard Treatment Guidelines were published in 1996 (MoPHP/NEDL, (1996); MoPHP/NSTG, (1996).Recently the latest edition was published in 2001 with the Standard Treatment Guidelines (STG) in the same booklet (Mo PHP/YSTG and YEDL, 2001). The new edition of the Treatment Guidelines and the Essential Drugs List has been created through a long process of consultation of medical and pharmaceutical professionals in Yemen and abroad. Review workshops were held in Sanaa and Aden and more than 200 representatives of the health workers from different governorates including the major medical specialists participated. Essential drugs are selected to fulfil the real needs of the majority of the population in diagnostic, prophylactic, therapeutic and rehabilitative services using criteria of risk-benefit ratio, cost-effectiveness, quality, practical administration as well as patient compliance and acceptance (Budon-Jakobowiez, 1994). The YEDL was initially used for the rural health units and health centers as well as some public hospitals, but not applied for all levels of health care and the private sector. However, despite the recognition of the essential drug concept by the government of Yemen represented by the Ministry of Public Health and Population (MoPHP), drugs remain in short supply to many of the population and irrationally used. Procurement cost is sometimes needlessly high. Knowledge of appropriate drug use and the adverse health consequences remain unacceptably low. In addition, diminished funding in the public sector resulted in shortage of pharmaceuticals. The 20th century has witnessed an explosion of pharmaceutical discovery, which has widened the therapeutic potential of medical practice. The vast increase in the number of pharmaceutical products marketed in the last decades has not made drug available to all people and neither has resulted in the expected health improvement. While some of the newly invented drugs are significant advance in therapy, the majorities of drugs marketed as â€Å"new† are minor variations of existing drug preparations and do not always represent a significant treatment improvement. In addition, the vast number brand names products for the same drug increases the total number of products of this particular drug resulting in an unjustified large range of drug preparations marketed throughout the world. The regular supply of drugs to treat the most common diseases was a major problem for governments in low-income countries. The WHO recommends that activities to strengthen the pharmaceutical sector be organized under the umbrella of the national drug policy (WHO, 1988). In 1995, over 50 of these countries has formulated National Drug Policies (NDP). The NDP is a guide for action, containing the goals set by the government for the pharmaceutical sector and the main strategies and approaches for attaining them. It provides a framework to co-ordinate activities of patients involved in pharmaceutical sector, the public sector, the private sector, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), donors and other interested parties. A NDP will therefore, indicate the various courses of action to be in relation to medicines within a country. The Yemen National Drug Policy was developed since 1993 with the objectives of ensuring availability of essential drugs through equitable distribution, ensuring drugs efficacy and safety, as well as promoting the rational use of drugs. Unfortunately, it has n Research into Rational Drug Prescribing in Yemen Research into Rational Drug Prescribing in Yemen CHAPTER 1 1.0 Introduction In Yemen as well as in many other developing countries the quality of health services which constitute social indicators of justice and equity is far from being satisfactory. Inappropriate, ineffective, and inefficient use of drugs commonly occurs at different health facilities (Abdo-Rabbo, 1993; Abdo-Rabbo, 1997). Irrational prescribing is a habit, which is difficult to cure. This may lead to ineffective treatment, health risks, patient non-compliance, drug wastage, wasteful of resources and needless expenditure. According to the Yemeni constitution, â€Å"patients have the right to health care and treatment† i.e. appropriate care, consent to treatment and acceptable safety. Therefore, health workers should concentrate on making patients better and patients should concentrate on geting better. Health care in general and particularly the drug situation in any country is influenced by the availability, affordability, and accessibility of drugs as well as the prescribing practices. There are many individuals or factors influence the irrational prescribing such as patients, prescribers, workplace environment, the supply system, including industry influences, governments regulations, drug information and misinformation (Geest S. V. et al, 1991; Hogerzeil H. V., 1995).Improving rational use of drugs (RUD) is a very complex task worldwide because changing behavior is very difficult. The 1985 Nairobi conference on the rational use of drugs marked the start of a global effort to promote rational prescribing (WHO,1987). In 1989, an overview of the subject concluded that very few interventions to promote rational drug use had been properly tested in developing countries (Laing et al., 2001). The selection of drugs to satisfy the health needs of the population is an important component of a national drug policy. The selected drugs are called essential drugs which are the most needed for the health care of the majority of the population in a given locality, and in a proper dosage forms. The national list of essential drugs (NEDL) is based on prevailing health conditions, drug efficacy, safety, and quality, cost- effectiveness and allocated financial resources. WHOs mission in essential drugs and medicines policy is to help save lives and improve health by closing the huge gap between the potential that essential drugs have to offer and the reality that for millions of people particularly the poor and disadvantaged medicines are unavailable, unaffordable, unsafe or improperly used. The organization works to fulfill its mission in essential drugs and medicines policy by providing global guidance on essential drugs and medicines, and working with countries to implement national drug policies to ensure equity of access to essential drugs, drug quality and safety, and rational use of drugs. Development and implementation of national drug policies are carried out within the overall national health policy context, with care taken to ensure that their goals are consistent with broader health objectives. All these activities ultimately contribute to all four WHO strategic directions to: reduce the excess mortality of poor and marginalized populations reduce the leading risk factors to human health develop sustainable health systems,and develop an enabling policy and institutional environment for securing health gains. The greatest impact of WHO medicines activities is, and will continue to be, on reducing excess mortality and morbidity from diseases of poverty, and on developing sustainable health systems. The people of our world do not need to bear the present burden of illness. Most of the severe illness that affects the health and well-being of the poorer people of our world could be prevented. But first, those at risk need to be able to access health care — including essential medicines, vaccines and technologies. Millions cannot — they cannot get the help they need, when they need it. As a result they suffer unnecessarily, become poorer and may die young. A countrys health service cannot respond to peoples needs unless it enables people to access essential drugs of assured quality. Indeed, this access represents a very important measure of the quality of the health service. It is one of the key indicators of equity and social justice. (Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General, World Health Organization Opening remarks, Parliamentary Commission on Investigation of Medicines, Brasilia, 4 April 2000). 1.1 Background 1.1.1 Brief history of antibiotics According to the original definition by Waksman, antibiotics substances which are produced by microorganisms and which exhibit either an inhibitory or destructive effect on other microorganisms. In a wider, though not universally accepted definition; antibiotics are substances of biological origin, which without possessing enzyme character, in low concentrations inhibit cell growth processes (Reiner, 1982). Up to now, more than 4,000 antibiotics have been isolated from microbial sources and reported in the literature, and more than 30000 semi-synthetic antibiotics have been prepared. Of these, only about 100 are used clinically as the therapeutic utility not only depends on a high antibiotic activity but also on other important properties such as good tolerance, favorable pharmacokinetics etc. These antibiotics are today among the most efficient weapons in the armoury of the physician in his fight against infectious diseases. They are therefore used a large extent and constitute the largest class of medicaments with respect to turnover value. Today, antibiotics are also used in veterinary medicine and as additives to animal feed. In the past they were used addition, as plant protection agents and as food preservatives. In this review we have confined ourselves to a brief description clinicallyuseful antibiotics. These belong to various classes of chemical compounds, differ in origin, mechanism of action and spectrum activity, and are thus important and representative examples of known antibiotics. 1.1.2 Problem Statement This study examines drug use in Yemen and factors leading to inappropriate use of medicines particularly antibiotics and the prescribing pattern. It defines rational drug use and describes policy developments, which aim to encourage appropriate use. In Yemen, as well as in many developing countries, the quality of health services is far from being achieved. Therefore, doctors should concentrate on making patients better and patients should concentrate on getting better. The rational use of drugs requires that patients received medications in appropriate to their clinical needs, in doses that meets their own requirements for an adequate period of time and at the lowest cost to them and their community (Bapna et al, 1994). This means deciding on the correct treatment for an individual patient based on good scientific reasons. It involves making an accurate diagnosis, selecting the most appropriate drug from these available, prescribing this drug in adequate doses for a sufficient length of time according to standard treatment. Furthermore, it involves monitoring the effect of the drug both on the patient and on the illness. There is plentiful evidence of the inappropriate use of drugs, not through self-medication or unauthorized prescribing, but inadequate medical prescribing and dispensing. Normally, patients in Yemen enter health facilities with a set of symmetrical complaints, and with expectations about the care they typically receive; they typically leave with a package of drugs or with a prescription to obtain them in a private market. In previous study in Yemen (misuse of antibiotics in Yemen, a pilot study in Aden) (Abdo-Rabbo, 1997) showed that imported quantity and total consumption of antibiotics is increasing. There is a lack of information about the problems created from antibiotics among the community and about the proper efficacy, safety, and rational use of antibiotics among health authority and workers. No supervision or strict rules are applied in the use of antibiotics. They are easily obtained without prescription and available in some shops. The percentage of prescriptions containing antibiotics was more than a quarter of the total prescriptions contained antibiotics, also antibiotics constituted about 25% of all prescribed drugs. 1.1.2.1 Inappropriate Drug Use Increasing use of medicines may lead to an increase in the problems associated with medication use. The use of medicines, as well as improving health, can lead to undesirable medical, social, economic and environmental consequences. Aspects of drug use, which lead to such undesirable consequences, have been called inappropriate drug use (DHHCS, 1992; WHO, 1988). Inappropriate drug use may include under-use, over-use, over-supply, non-compliance, adverse drug reactions and accidental and therapeutic poisoning (DHHCS, 1992). It also includes medicating where there is no need for drug use, the use of newer, more expensive drugs when lower cost, equally effective drugs are available (WHO, 1988) and drug use for problems which are essentially social or personal (Frauenfelder and Bungey, 1985). 1.1.2.2 Quality Use of Medicines In an attempt to encourage the appropriate use of medicinal drugs and to reduce the level of inappropriate use in Yemen, a policy was developed on the quality use of medicines. The stated aim of the policy is: to optimise medicinal drug use (both prescription and OTC) to improve healthoutcomes for all Yemenis. The policy endorses the definition of quality drug use as stated by the World Health Organisation, Drugs are often required for prevention, control and treatment of illness†. When a drug is required, the rational use of drugs demands that the appropriate drug be prescribed, that it be available at the right time at a price people can afford, that it be dispensed correctly, and that it be taken in the right dose at the right intervals and for the right length of time. The appropriate drug must be effective, and of acceptable quality and safety. The formulation and implementation by governments of a national drug policy are fundamental to ensure rational drug use (WHO, 1987 ; DHHCS, 1992). The rational use of drugs can be impeded by the inappropriate selection of management options, the inappropriate selection of a drug when a drug is required, the inappropriate dosage and duration of drug therapy and the inadequate review of drug therapy once it has been initiated. 1.1.2.3 The Requirement of Drug Information for Quality Use of Medicines A medicine has been described as an active substance plus information. (WHO, 1994). Education, together with, objective and appropriate drug information have been two of the factors consistently identified as necessary for rational drug use (Naismith, 1988; Soumerai, 1988; Carson et al, 1991; Dowden, 1991; Henry and Bochner, 1991; Tomson and Diwan, 1991). The WHO guidelines for developing national drug policies also identify the importance of information provision for facilitating drug use: Information on and promotion of drugs may greatly influence their supply and use. Monitoring and control of both activities are essential parts of any national drug policy (WHO, 1988). Objective and appropriate drug information is a necessary factor for quality drug use. It is the basis for appropriate prescribing decisions by medical practitioners. Medical practitioners require objective product, specific drug information and comparative prescribing information. Objective drug information is avai lable to medical practitioners through continuing education programs co-ordinated by professional bodies, medical and scientific journal articles, drug information services and drug formularies and guidelines. 1.1.2.4 Problem with antibiotic use The concerns regarding inappropriate antibiotic use can be divided into four areas: efficacy, toxicity, cost, and resistance. Inappropriate use of antibiotic can be due to: Antibiotic use where no infection is present, e.g. continuation of peri-operative prophylaxis for more than 24 hours after clean surgery. Infection, which is not amenable to antibiotic therapy, e.g. antibiotics prescribed for viral upper respiratory infection. The wrong drug for the causative organism, e.g. the use of broad anti-Gram negative agents for community acquired pneumonia. The wrong dose or duration of therapy. Such inappropriate use has a measurable effect on therapeutic efficacy. For example, one study showed that mortality in gram-negative septicemia is doubled when inappropriate empiric agents were used (Kreger et al., 1980). Since most initial antibiotic therapy is empiric, any attempt at improving use must tackle prescribing habits, with particular emphasis on guidelines for therapy based on clinical criteria. Inappropriate antibiotic use exposes patients to the risk of drug toxicity, while giving little or no therapeutic advantage, antibiotics are often considered relatively safe drugs and yet direct and indirect side effects of their use are frequent and may be life-threatening, allergic reactions, particularly to beta-lactam agents are well recognized and have been described in reaction to antibiotic residues in food (Barragry, 1994). Life threatening side effects may be occur from the use of antibiotics for apparently simple infections, it is estimated, for example, that eight people per year in UK die from side effects of co-trimoxazole usage in the community (Robert and Edmond, 1998). Indirect side effects are often overlooked: especially as may occur sometime after the antibiotic has been given. These include drug interactions (such as interference of antibiotic with anti-coagulant therapy and erythromycin with antihistamine) (BNF, 1998), side effects associated with the administration of antibiotics (such as intravenous cannula infection) and super-infection (such as candidiasis and pseudomembranous colitis). Each of these may have a greater morbidity, and indeed mortality, than the initial infection for which the antibiotic was prescribed (Kunin et al., 1993). The medical benefit of antibiotics does not come cheap. In the hospital setting, up to fifty percent of population receive one antibiotic during their hospital stay, with surgical prophylaxis accounting for thirty percent of this (Robert and Edmond, 1998). The first penicillin resistant isolate of Staphylococcus aureus was described only two years after the introduction of penicillin. Within a decade, 90% of isolates were penicillin resistant. This pattern of antibiotic discovery and introduction, followedby exuberant use and rapid emergence of resistance has subsequently been repeated witheach new class of antibiotics introduced. Bacteria can so rapidly develop resistance due to two major evolutionary advantages. Firstly, bacteria have been in existence for some 3.8 billion years and resistance mechanisms have evolved over this time as a protective mechanism against naturally occurring compounds produced by other microorganisms. In addition, they have an extremely rapid generation time and can freely exchange genetic material encoding resistance, not only between other species but also between genera. The vast quantities of antibiotics used in both human and veterinary medicine, as a result present in the environment, have lead to eme rgence of infection due to virtually untreatable bacteria. Multiply drug resistant tuberculosis is already widespread in parts of Southern Europe and has recently caused outbreaks in hospitals in London (Hiramatsu et al., 1997). Anti-infective are vital drugs, but they are over prescribed and overused in treatment of minor disorder such as simple diarrhea, coughs, and colds. When antibiotics are too often used in sub-optimal dosages, bacteria become resistant to them. The result is treatment failure where patient continue to suffer from serious infections despite taking the medication (Mohamed, 1999). Drugs prescribed are in no way beneficial to the patient s management if there are some negative interactions among the various agent prescribed, over prescribed, under prescribed or prescribed in the wrong dosage schedule. How does one ensure that good drug are not badly used, misused, or even abused? How can drugs be used rationally as intended? What is rational use of drugs? What does rational mean? 1.1.3 Rational Use of Drug Rational use of drugs requires that patients receive medications appropriate to their clinical needs, in doses that meet their own individual requirements for an adequate period of time, and the lowest cost to them and their community (Bapna et al., 1994). These requirements will be fulfilled if the process of prescribing is appropriately followed. This will include steps in defining patients problems (or diagnosis); in defining effective and safe treatments (drugs and non-drugs); in selecting appropriate drugs, dosage, and duration; in writing a prescription; in giving patients adequate information; and in planning to evaluate treatment responses. The definition implies that rational use of drugs; especially rational prescribing should meet certain criteria as follows (Ross et al., 1992): Appropriate indication. The decision to prescribe drug(s) is entirely based on medical rationale and that drug therapy is an effective and safe treatment. Appropriate drug.The selection of drugs is based on efficacy, safety, suitability, and considerations. Appropriate patient. No contraindications exist and the likelihood of adverse reactions is minimal, and the drug is acceptable to the patient. Appropriate information. Patients should be provided with relevant, accurate, important, and clear information regarding his or her condition and the medication(s) that are prescribed. Appropriate monitoring. The anticipated and unexpected effects of medications should be: appropriately monitored (Vance and Millington, 1986). Unfortunately, in the real world, prescribing patterns do not always conform to these criteria and can be classified as inappropriate or irrational prescribing. Irrational prescribing may be regarded as pathological prescribing, where the above- mentioned criteria are not fulfilled. Common patterns of irrational prescribing, may, therefore be manifested in the following forms: The use of drugs when no drug therapy is indicated, e.g., antibiotics for viral upper respiratory infections, The use of the wrong drug for a specific condition requiring drug therapy, e.g., tetracycline in childhood diarrhea requiring ORS, The use of drugs with doubtful/unproven efficacy, e.g., the use of antimotility agents in acute diarrhea, The use of drugs of uncertain safety status, e.g., use of dipyrone, Failure to provide available, safe, and effective drugs, e.g., failure to vaccinate against measles or tetanus, failure to prescribe ORS for acute diarrhea, The use of correct drugs with incorrect administration, dosages, and duration, e.g., the use of IV metronidazole when suppositories or oral formulations would be appropriate. The use of unnecessarily expensive drugs, e.g., the use of a third generation, broad spectrum antimicrobial when a first-line, narrow spectrum, agent is indicated. Some examples of commonly encountered inappropriate prescribing practices in many health care settings include: (Avorn et al., 1982). Overuse of antibiotics and antidiarrheals for non-specific childhood diarrhea, Multiple drug prescriptions, prescribe unnecessary drugs to counteract or augment, Drugs already prescribed, and Excessive use of antibiotics in treating minor respiratory tract infection. The drug use system is complex and varies from country to country. Drugs may be imported or manufactured locally. The drugs may be used in hospitals or health centers, by private practitioners and often in a pharmacy or drug shop where OTC preparations are sold. In some countries, all drugs are available over the counter. Another problem among the public includes a very wide range of people with differing knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about medicines. 1.1.3.1 Factors Underlying Irrational Use of Drugs There are many different factors that affect the irrational use of drugs. In addition, different cultures view drugs in different ways, and this can affect the way drugs are used. The major forces can be categorized as those deriving from patients, prescribers, the workplace, the supply system including industry influences, regulation, druginformation and misinformation, and combinations of these factors (Table 1.1) (Ross et al., 1992). Table 1.1: Factors affecting irrational use of drug Impact of Inappropriate Use of Drugs The impact of this irrational use of drugs can be seen in many ways: (Avorn et al., 1982). Reduction in the quality of drug therapy leading to increased morbidity and mortality, Waste of resources leading to reduced availability of other vital drugs and increased costs, Increased risk of unwanted effects such as adverse drug reactions and the emergence of drug resistance, e.g., malaria or multiple drugs resistant tuberculosis, Psychosocial impacts, such as when patients come to believe that there is a pill for every ill. This may cause an apparent increased demand for drugs. 1.1.3.2 The Rational Prescription (i.e. the right to prescribe) The rights to prescription writing must be ensuring the patients five rights: the right drug, the right dose, by the right route, to the right patient, at the right time. Illegible handwriting and misinterpretation of prescriptions and medication orders are widely recognized causes of prescription error. The medicines should be prescribed only when they are necessary, should be written legibly in ink or, other wise, should be led, and should be signed in ink by the prescriber, The patients full name and address, diagnosis should be written clearly, the name of drugs and formulations should be written clearly and not abbreviated, using approved titles only. Dose and dose frequency should be stated; in the cases of formulations to be taken as required, a minimum dose should be specified (British National Formulary, 1998). 1.2 Overview on Essential Drug Concept (EDC) Essential drugs relate to an international concept proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1977. WHO in that year published the first model list of essential drug and WHO has put in enormous resources into the campaign to promote the concept of essential drugs (EDL). Essential drugs were defined as a limited number of drugs that should be available at any time to the majority of population in appropriate dosage forms and at affordable prices. In other words, it meets the criteria generally abbreviated as SANE [that mean safety , availability, need efficacy] (John, 1997). The essential drug concept is important in ensuring that the vast majority of the population is accessible to drugs of high quality, safety and efficacy relevant to their health care needs, and at reasonable cost (New Straits Times, 1997a). In support of this concept, the WHOissued a model drug list that provided examples of essential drugs. The list is drawn up by a group of experts based on clinical scientific merits, and provides an economical basis of drug use. This list is regularly, revised and, since 1997, eight editions have been published. This ensures that the need for essential drugs is always kept up-to-date with additions and deletions. Despite such rigorous revision, the number of drugs in the list remains at about 300, although the initial list comprised less. Most of the drugs are no longer protected by patents and can therefore be produced in quantity at a lower cost without comprising standards (WHO, 1995). This is indeed important for countries like Yemen not only because health care are rapidly escalating, but also because the country is still very dependent on imports of strategic commodities like drugs. The EDC will enable Yemen to focus on becoming self-reliant where generic equivalents of essenti al drugs can be manufactured and popularized to meet the health needs of the majority of the people. The limited number of drugs regarded as essential on the list offers a useful guide for practitioners as well as consumers. It underscores the general principle thata majority of diseases can be treated by similar drugs regardless of national boundaries and geographical locations (New Straits Times, 2000) Moreover, certain self-limiting diseases may not need drug treatment as such. For example, in the case of diarrhea, certain so-called potent anti-diarrhoeal drugs (including antibiotics) are not generally recommended. The more preferred treatment is oral rehydration salt that could easily be obtained or prepared at a fraction of the cost while giving the most optimum outcome. The goal of the Yemen Drug Policy was to: Prepare a list of essential drugs to meet the health of needs of the people. Assure that the essential drugs made available to the public are of good quality Improve prescribing and dispensing practices Promote rational use of drug by the public Lower cost of the drugs to the government and public Reduce foreign exchange expenditure 1.3 Yemen Essential Drug List and Drug Policy in Yemen The Concept of Essential Drugs (EDC) developed by World Health Organization (WHO) in 1977 has provided a rational basis, not only for drug procurement at national level but also for establishing drug requirements at various levels within the health care system. The WHOs Action Program on Essential Drugs (DAP) aimed to improve health care. It was established in order to provide operational support in the development of National Drug Policies (NDP), to improve the availability of essential drugs to the whole population and to work towards the rational use of drugs and consequently the patient care. The program seeks to ensure that all people, whenever they may be, are able to obtain the drugs they need at the lowest possible price; that these drugs are safe and effective; and that they are prescribed and used rationally. The first WHO Model List of Essential Drugs was published in 1977 (WHO, 1977). Since that time essential drugs become an important part of health policies in developing countries; but the Essential Drugs Program has been criticized because it emphasis in improving supply of drugs rather than their rational prescribing. The recent revised WHO Model List of Essential Drugs was published the 13th edition in April 2003 (WHO, 2003). Yemen was one of the first countries in the region adapted the EDC in 1984 and implemented this concept in the public sector (Hogerzeil et al., 1989). The first Yemen (National) Essential Drugs List (YEDL) was officially issued in 1987 based on the WHO List of Essential Drugs and other resources. The second edition of the Yemen Drugs list and the Yemen Standard Treatment Guidelines were published in 1996 (MoPHP/NEDL, (1996); MoPHP/NSTG, (1996).Recently the latest edition was published in 2001 with the Standard Treatment Guidelines (STG) in the same booklet (Mo PHP/YSTG and YEDL, 2001). The new edition of the Treatment Guidelines and the Essential Drugs List has been created through a long process of consultation of medical and pharmaceutical professionals in Yemen and abroad. Review workshops were held in Sanaa and Aden and more than 200 representatives of the health workers from different governorates including the major medical specialists participated. Essential drugs are selected to fulfil the real needs of the majority of the population in diagnostic, prophylactic, therapeutic and rehabilitative services using criteria of risk-benefit ratio, cost-effectiveness, quality, practical administration as well as patient compliance and acceptance (Budon-Jakobowiez, 1994). The YEDL was initially used for the rural health units and health centers as well as some public hospitals, but not applied for all levels of health care and the private sector. However, despite the recognition of the essential drug concept by the government of Yemen represented by the Ministry of Public Health and Population (MoPHP), drugs remain in short supply to many of the population and irrationally used. Procurement cost is sometimes needlessly high. Knowledge of appropriate drug use and the adverse health consequences remain unacceptably low. In addition, diminished funding in the public sector resulted in shortage of pharmaceuticals. The 20th century has witnessed an explosion of pharmaceutical discovery, which has widened the therapeutic potential of medical practice. The vast increase in the number of pharmaceutical products marketed in the last decades has not made drug available to all people and neither has resulted in the expected health improvement. While some of the newly invented drugs are significant advance in therapy, the majorities of drugs marketed as â€Å"new† are minor variations of existing drug preparations and do not always represent a significant treatment improvement. In addition, the vast number brand names products for the same drug increases the total number of products of this particular drug resulting in an unjustified large range of drug preparations marketed throughout the world. The regular supply of drugs to treat the most common diseases was a major problem for governments in low-income countries. The WHO recommends that activities to strengthen the pharmaceutical sector be organized under the umbrella of the national drug policy (WHO, 1988). In 1995, over 50 of these countries has formulated National Drug Policies (NDP). The NDP is a guide for action, containing the goals set by the government for the pharmaceutical sector and the main strategies and approaches for attaining them. It provides a framework to co-ordinate activities of patients involved in pharmaceutical sector, the public sector, the private sector, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), donors and other interested parties. A NDP will therefore, indicate the various courses of action to be in relation to medicines within a country. The Yemen National Drug Policy was developed since 1993 with the objectives of ensuring availability of essential drugs through equitable distribution, ensuring drugs efficacy and safety, as well as promoting the rational use of drugs. Unfortunately, it has n

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Different Cultural Practices in the Philippines

Christille Lindy Joyce D. Caluyo BMLS II-A 1) Different cultural practices in the Philippines which could affect our health. Herbalaryo/Arbolaryo/Witch-Doctors †¢ Filipinos believe that some illnesses are caused by evil spirits that enter the body which are cast by â€Å"Manga ga mud†. †¢ â€Å"Manga ga mud† casts spells on people if they are jealous or disliked. They take personal items such as, clothing, a brush (to obtain a piece of hair), pictures, jewelry, etc. It is also done by food poisoning. †¢ These people who became sick / cursed ask help from herbalaryo/arbolaryo. They are also called witch-doctors. The herbalaryo may treat â€Å"Manga ga mud† by gathering unmarried individuals, and a bag of rice. †¢ This treatment involves a night of ritual sprinkling of rice, dining and dancing to Filipino music. †¢ After the night of festivities, everyone will say a Filipino prayer for the person who has been cursed. They believed that this treatment would remove the curse from the affected person. Halaman (Medicinal Herbs & Plants) †¢ Filipinos also believe in the healing effects of nature. †¢ Medicinal herbs & plants like ginger, garlic, and chives are used to treat different sickness. Religion †¢ Filipinos believe that religion is closely tied to health.Younger Filipino gives importance to prayer. †¢Filipinos are religious people that they entrust their health to their faith. †¢Prayer also has a role in the understanding of health. Regardless of how religious each age category, there is a consistent belief that God is present at work in times of illness. †¢In the case of terminal or serious illness, Filipino accepts the situation in a sense that â€Å"it is God’s will. Superstitious Beliefs †¢Many of Filipino’s believe on superstitious things such as if you comb your hair at the night, someone will die or eating twin bananas will helmyou conceive a twin. These belie fs are not scientifically proven and can only be supported by the word of our ancestors. †¢Maybe these things occur because of coincidence, just like when someone died because he is ill then they blame it for combing their hair and the word spread all over the nation. 2) Different religious practices that can affect our health. †¢Religious beliefs cause patients to forego needed medical care, refuse life-saving procedures, and stop necessary medication—choosing faith instead of medicine. Religion can cause people to be judgmental and lead to alienation or exclusion of those not playing â€Å"by the rules. † †¢If physical healing does not come immediately, the person may be disappointed and disheartened and claims that the prayer was not answered and that God does not care, and worse that the illness was sent by an angry, vengeful God as a punishment. †¢Religion may become so rigid and inflexible that it becomes excessively restricting and limiting. †¢Religion may encourage magical thinking as people pray for and expect physical healing. Jehovah's Witnesses may refuse life-saving blood products, and some Christian Scientists may avoid seeing Healthcare Provider because they rely on prayer instead. †¢Patients may stop their medications after attending a healing service in order to â€Å"demonstrate their faith†. †¢People believe that being spiritually healthy could lead you to a healthy body. †¢People would pray always and avoid being problematic. Sources: http://www. hawcc. hawaii. edu/nursing/tradfil2. htm http://www. spirit-health. org/resources_detail. asp? q=12 http://www. esipa. org/happening/documents/Culture_Health_Report. pdf

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Personal life and sports Essay

Sportsmanship is the character, practice, or skill of a person involved in sports. This includes the participant, the parents, the coaches, and all spectators. Sportsmanlike conduct includes fairness, courtesy, learning to be a good loser, being competitive without rude behavior, or experiencing any ill feelings toward the opponent. Too often in any sporting event, the purpose of the sport is forgotten. Winning has become overwhelmingly important to the adults involved. This attitude is inflicted on the youth. People of all ages should be allowed to fully embrace the challenge and fun of playing sports. Teaching, coaching, motivating, and winning are fine as long as the reason for the sport or activity is prioritized. The attitudes of athletes are instilled in them at a very young age. They reflect the motivation and goals of their parents, who sometimes push them into sports they would not normally choose for themselves. Play is essential in growth and develop- ment. Children who play sports with other children tend to socialize and adjust better as adults. Healthy competition provides a natural, emotional outlet for children, but should not be forced or overemphasized. Competition should be kept friendly with the emphasis on participation rather than the outcome of the event. Parents should not pressure the child to excel, regardless of his abilities, because this takes away the fun of the sport, adds undo pressure on the participant, and produces unsportsmanlike conduct. Sportsmanship is participating in a sport, rather than performing, and realizing how you play the game is more important than winning. Too many coaches and parents tend to forget the reason for sports for children. They get caught up in the excitement and competitiveness. Winning is the ultimate goal, at all costs. The cost is the effect this attitude has on the children. I have witnessed this behavior from coaches and parents, where they have actually embarrassed and humiliated young players in front of their peers. The negative effect this has on the athletes is obvious. They become aggressive, sometimes withdrawn and angry, rude, and inconsiderate. Sports are not just an activity. They form a stepping stone toward the future. Sportsmanship teaches children how to interact with peers, how to relate and interact with others. Sports can teach cooperation, sharing, and compassion. At a young age participation in sports introduces players to rules, and how to incorporate them into other aspects of life. A child must realize that losing has absolutely nothing to do with self-worth, that their personal value is not measured by winning or losing, but doing the best that they can in sports and life. It is important that children and adults be part of a group to feel acceptance, without the emphasis on winning. Self-confidence does not come from winning or losing, but how the outcome is handled. If you perform to your best ability, then you have won the only  important game. Sportsmanship is what the activity should be about. Coaches and parents should relax, enjoy the fact that their children are active and adjusting socially, have fun, and allow their children to have fun. They will produce healthier, happier, more secure, self-confident, and less angry, frustrated children. Sportsmanship carries into every aspect of daily life. Winning and losing is part of every day life at every age and every stage. We should learn and be taught through praise and example how to win and lose with dignity, humility, and self-respect.